Wood carving has been one of the oldest human activities. Few samples of this art have been preserved from the Byzantine period which, however, confirm its relationship with sculpture in marble, miniature and painting.
The development of wood sculpture is associated with the extended use since the 14th century of the wooden icon-screens, replacing the marble. Wood sculpture during the post-Byzantine period (15th-19th centuries) turns away from the techniques of marble sculpture and exploits the technical possibilities of wood. Until the 17th century the themes of wood carvings are flat forms with notches or simply engraved, while from the 18th century onwards, wood carvings become more embossed, oblique, with plastic processing of faces, animals and herbal motifs, which intertwine with artistic imagination. This section, representative samples of post-Byzantine wood sculpture are presented: parts of church temples, frames, crosses, and casing of icons.